Monday, January 23, 2012



Ir. Soekarno (ER, EYD: Sukarno, the name was born: Koesno Sosrodihardjo) (born in Surabaya, East Java, June 6, 1901 - died in Jakarta, June 21, 1970 at age 69 years) is Indonesia's first president who served in the period 1945-1966. He played an important role to liberate the nation of Indonesia from Dutch rule. Sukarno's Pancasila is the diggers because he was the first spark of the basic concepts and state of Indonesia's Pancasila he himself who named it. He was proclaimed the Independence of Indonesia (along with Mohammad Hatta) which occurred on August 17, 1945.
Sukarno signed March 11, 1966 Warrant Supersemar controversial, the contents of which - based on the version issued by Army Headquarters - commissioned Lieutenant-General Suharto to secure and maintain the security of the state and the institution of the presidency. Supersemar basis Lieutenant General Suharto to dissolve the Communist Party of Indonesia (PKI) and replace the members who sit in parliament. Having rejected the accountability Provisional People's Consultative Assembly (MPRS) in the fourth general assembly in 1967, President Sukarno was dismissed from his post as president of the Special Session of the Assembly in the same year and raising Suharto as acting President of the Republic of Indonesia.

Sukarno with national figures began to prepare themselves ahead of the proclamation of independence of the Republic of Indonesia. After the trial Investigation Agency Business BPUPKI Preparation of Indonesian Independence, subcommittee consisting of eight people (official), subcommittee consisting of nine persons / Committee Nine (which produces the Jakarta Charter) and the Preparatory Committee for Indonesian Independence PPKI, Soekarno-Hatta Indonesia set up the State based on Pancasila and 1945 Constitution.

After seeing Marshal Terauchi at Dalat, Vietnam, there Rengasdengklok Events on August 16, 1945; Sukarno and Mohammad Hatta persuaded by the youth to get away to boarding troops Map Rengasdengklok Defenders of the Homeland. Youth leaders who persuade the others Soekarni, Wikana, Singgih and Chairul Saleh. The youths demanded that Sukarno and Hatta proclaimed the independence of the Republic of Indonesia immediately, because the vacuum of power in Indonesia occurred. This is because the Japanese had surrendered and Allied troops had not arrived. But Sukarno, Hatta and leaders refused on the grounds waiting for clarity about the Japanese surrender. Another reason is the growing Sukarno set a precise moment for the independence of the Republic of Indonesia which is chosen on 17 August 1945 when it coincided with Ramadan, the Muslim holy month which is believed to be the first month of the Muslim revelation to Prophet Muhammad SAW ie Al Qur-an. On 18 August 1945, Sukarno and Mohammad Hatta was appointed by PPKI become President and Vice President of the Republic of Indonesia. On August 29, 1945 appointment as president and vice president confirmed by KNIP.Pada on 19 September 1945 Sukarno authority may resolve without bloodshed Ikada Field events where 200 000 people of Jakarta will clash with the Japanese troops are still armed to the teeth.

At the time of arrival of the Allies (AFNEI) led by Lieutenant General. Sir Philip Christison, Christison finally recognized Indonesia's sovereignty de facto, after meeting with President Sukarno. President Sukarno also trying to resolve the crisis in Surabaya. However, due to provocations launched by troops NICA (Dutch) that hitchhike Allies. (Under the UK) burst events 10 November 1945 in Surabaya and the death of Brigadier General Mallaby AWS.

Because a lot of provocation in Jakarta at the time, President Soekarno eventually move the capital of the Republic of Indonesia from Jakarta to Yogyakarta. Followed by vice presidents and other senior state officials.

The position of President Sukarno in the 1945 Constitution is the position of President as head of government and heads of state (presidential / executive singles). During the revolution, the system of government changed to semi-presidensiil/double executive. President Sukarno as head of state and Sutan Syahrir as the Prime Minister / Head of Government. It happened because of the vice presidential edict No. X, and the government's announcement in November 1945 concerning political parties. This was taken to the Republic of Indonesia is considered a more democratic country.

Although the system of government changed, at the time of the revolution, the position of President Soekarno is still most important, especially in the face of current events and the 1948 Madison Dutch Military Aggression II that led to President Sukarno, Vice President Mohammad Hatta and a number of senior state officials arrested the Netherlands. Despite the emergency government of the Republic of Indonesia (PDRI) with Sjafruddin Prawiranegara chairman, but in fact the international and domestic situation while recognizing that the Soekarno-Hatta is the real leader of Indonesia, only policies that can resolve the dispute Indonesia-Netherlands.
After recognition of Sovereignty (The Dutch government says a submission Sovereignty), President Sukarno was appointed as President of the Republic of Indonesia (RIS) and Mohammad Hatta was appointed as prime minister of RIS. The position of President of the Republic of Indonesia submitted to Mr. Assaat, which became known as the Java-Yogyakarta Indonesia. However, because the demands of all the people of Indonesia who want to return to a unitary state, then on 17 August 1950, the RIS again turned into the Republic of Indonesia and President Sukarno becomes President. The mandate of Mr. Assaat as acting President handed back to Ir. Sukarno. Official position of President Sukarno was president of the constitutional, but in fact government policy made after consultations with him.

Myth Binitarian Soekarno-Hatta is quite popular among the people and more powerful compared to the prime minister head of government. Rise and fall of the cabinet are known as "cabinet for the rest of corn" to make the President less trust multiparty system, even calling it a "disease of party". Not infrequently, he also intervene to mediate conflicts within the military that also impact on the rise and fall of the cabinet. As events of October 17, 1952 and the events in the Air Force.

President Sukarno also provides many ideas in the international world. Concern over the fate of the peoples of Asia and Africa, are still not independent, yet have the right to self-determination, causing the president Sukarno, in 1955, took the initiative to convene the Asian-African Conference in Bandung that produces Dasa Sila. Known as the capital city of Bandung Asia-Africa. Inequality and conflict due to a "time bomb" left by the western countries are still concerned that branded imperialism and colonialism, inequality and the fears of the emergence of a nuclear war that changed civilization, injustice international agencies in conflict resolution is also a concern. Together with President Josip Broz Tito (Yugoslavia), Gamal Abdel Nasser (Egypt), Mohammad Ali Jinnah (Pakistan), U Nu, (Burma) and Jawaharlal Nehru (India), he organized the Asia-Africa Conference that led to the Non-Aligned Movement. Thanks to his services, many Asian and African countries that obtained independence. But unfortunately, still many others who experienced prolonged conflict until recently because of inequities in problem solving, which is still dominated by powerful countries or superpowers. Thanks to this service also, many people from the Asia-Africa who do not forget to remember or know Soekarno when will Indonesia.

In order to run an independent foreign policy-active in the international world, President Sukarno visited many countries and met with state leaders. Among them was Nikita Khrushchev (Soviet Union), John Fitzgerald Kennedy (United States), Fidel Castro (Cuba), Mao Tse Tung (PRC).


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